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SWHID parsing: simplify and deduplicate validation logic


SWHID parsing: simplify and deduplicate validation logic

Before this change there was a lot of overlap between parse_swhid() and the
attrs-based validators in the SWHID class. Also, the validation implementation
in parse_swhid() was done by hand.

With this change the coarse-grained validation done by parse_swhid() is now
delegated to a regex. The semantic validation of SWHIDs is left to attrs
validators. The regex is also exposed as a module attribute, to be used by
client code that want to syntactically validate SWHIDs without necessarily
instantiate SWHID classes (we have several other modules doing that already,
and they are using slightly different hand-made regexs, which isn't great).

As part of this change we also clean up the use of ValidationError exceptions,
systematically passing the problematic parts of SWHID as arguments, and uniform
error messages.

This change also brings some speed up in SWHID parsing. On a benchmark parsing
~30 M valid SWHIDs, the previous implementation took ~3:06 minutes, the new one
~2:50 minutes, or a ~9% speedup.

Closes T2788